Malaysia becomes an independent state. A biography of Henry Lee a senior member of the Government of Malaysia. The emergency comes to an end in 1960, the Communist guerrillas having been defeated by the Commonwealth forces. The reasons why the victory in Malaya could not be copied in Vietnam. A second Communist insurgence begins in 1968.
The British Army and Malay Police grind down the Communist guerrillas, increasing amounts of Malaya are declared free of Communist terrorism. The Malay Communist Party seek a peace deal with the newly elected Government of Malaysia but talks break down and the war carries on. The politics of Malaya and Singapore. A biography of Tunku the first prime minister of Malaysia.
High Commissioner Gerald Templer creates so called 'white areas' free of Communist terrorism where the emergency regulations can be ended. The British Army push the Communists back into the jungle highlands. The level of Communist activity declines. Templer leaves Malaya and is replaced as director of operations by Lieutenant General Bourne, a biography of the man.
Gerald Templer becomes the new High Commission and Director of Operations in Malaya. He dismisses officials who have been block to good cooperation between the Army and civil administration. The British Intelligence service greatly improves, cash rewards are given for information. British Army and Malay Police begin to defeat the Communists. A biography of Gerald Templer.
The life and death of Sir Henry Gurney, who is murdered in a Communist ambush. The rising level of Communist terrorism in Malaya. The disappointing results for the British military in 1951. A new British Government led by Winston Churchill demands changes in the way the war is fought.
The military campaign in 1950 in Malaya. A look at the Communist tactics against British Army patrols and what life was like in a Communist camp. Sir Harold Briggs arrives in Britain to become the Director of Operations he creates a plan to improve relation between the Army, the Police and the civil service. The Chinese squatter population are to be forced into so called ‘new villages’ to stop the flow of suppliers to the Communist guerrillas. A biography of Sir Harold Briggs.
The war in Malaya between the British Army and the Communists in 1949. The growing level of Communist terrorist activity. The British Colonial Government recruits ethnic Malays to fight the mainly ethnic Chinese Communist forces. The expansion of the Malay Police force. A biography of Chin Peng the leader of the Malayan Communist Party.
The war in Malaya between the British Army and the Communists begins in June 1948 with the killing of three British rubber planters. The British killed the military commander of the Communist forces. The Communist establish areas of control within the jungle highland with the support of the ethnic Chinese squatter population. A Biography of the British High Commission from 1946 to 1948 Sir Edward Gent.
The Communist Malay People's Anti Japanese Army fight a guerrilla war against the Japanese occupation and are armed by the British. In 1945 British troops reoccupy Malaya but their policy of the issue of citizenship manages to alienate each of the ethnic groups in Malaya. A biography of Lai Teck Communist leader during the Second World War.
A short history of the growing British economic and political power in Malaya during the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century. The large scale immigration of Chinese and Indians to work in British owned tin mines and rubber plantations. The defeat of the British Army by the Japanese Empire in 1942. The Japanese occupation of Malaya between 1942 and 1945 with its brutal repression of the ethnic Chinese population. A biography of Lieutenant General Arthur Percival, the commander of the British Army in Malaya in 1941.
At the Geneva Peace conference in 1954, an agreement is reached to end the war in Indochina. Vietnam would be divided, the Communist gaining control of the north. The French Army leave Hanoi and the Red River Delta. Diem becomes the leader of South Vietnam from 1954 until is overthrow and death in 1963, a biography of him.
On May 1st General Giap orders the Viet Minh army to attack the remaining French defensive positions, most of the attacks are successful. The French are greatly outnumbered and even the wounded are pressed into service. French resistance ends on May 7th. General Ely becomes the French Army commander in Indochina a biography of him. The French Government falls and the new premier promised to end the war in Indochina within 30 days.
The Viet Minh took some weeks to restock their supply of Artillery and Mortar shells and received new recruits into their infantry to replace the losses they had suffered. A biography of Colonel An who would become the new commander of the Viet Minh 174th Regiment. There was a growing problem of French troops deserting within the Dien Bien Phu garrison. However the French retake the hill position of Elaine One.
Lieutenant Colonel Langlais assumes effective control of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, a biography of him. The Viet Minh attack the eastern defences of the French base, most of which are successful but some French defensive positions do fight the Viet Minh off. The Isabelle position, south of the main base is cut off by the Viet Minh. However the Viet Minh do suffer heavy losses during this battles.
On March 1954, the Viet Minh launched an artillery barrage upon the French garrison. In the evening Viet Minh infantry attacked the Beatrice defensive position, capturing it an destroying a Foreign Legion battalion. On March 14th the Viet Minh attack and latter captured the Gabrielle position, destroying an Algerian battalion. A biography of Colonel Le Tan, the commander of the Viet minh 312th Division.
The French Army build a defensive positions around Dien Bien Phu, with blockhouse protected by barbed wire and trenches. The French Army raids into the surrounding countryside become more difficult as the Viet Minh move four infantry divisions and a heavy weapons division into the area. The French Army launch and offensive in Central Vietnam. A biography of General Cogny, the French Army commander in North Vietnam.
On November 20th 1953, the French Army drop parachute troops into the area of Dien Bien Phu. The French win control of the area after a battle with local Viet Minh forces. An airstrip is built and sup[plies flown in. The French garrison commander is Colonel De Castries, a biography of him. The Viet Minh pour troops into the hills surrounding the French base. General Giap orders two invasions into Laos.
Opposition to the war in France grows. General Henri Navarre is appointed as the new commander of the French Army in Indochina. He plans to expand both French forces and those of his Vietnamese allies. The French Army launch an operation along Highway Four near the border with China and another operation to defeat the Viet Minh 320th Division. General Navarre plans for a French military operation to occupy a valley in North Vietnam which contains Dien Bien Phu. A biography of General Navarre.
General Salan becomes the new commander of the French Army in Indochina, a biography of him. The French Army sends men to train the hill tribesmen to fight the Viet Minh. The French Army launches an offensive to the North West of Hanoi. General Giap orders his army to invade Laos but along the way suffers a repulse at Na Sam.